Private and Public Digital Evidence and Forensic Investigation

This article discusses the specific sub-field of digital forensics and the types of crimes that would need digital forensics for an investigation.

Digital Forensics

This sub-field of forensics examines data and information from computer storage media so that it may be used as evidence in a court of law or to answer a specific legal question as it may need.

For example in private investigations, digital forensics investigator may use digital forensics at the request of a private attorney for a defendant in a public case. And evidence may be gathered to prove that an employee is using company resources for personal private business use such as selling goods online or visiting the site that is against the company rules and regulation about Information technology. In this case, the employee may be subject to disciplinary action by the company, more personal liability, and perhaps criminal liability.

More so, evidence that proves an employee has violated an employment agreement. For example, evidence may be gathered that proves an employee accessed records or other information without authorization. It may also give that one employee has harassed another employee or perhaps stolen company information.

While public investigations require digital forensics only when a crime has been committed and computers can be used in crimes in one of the following ways, such as, Crimes associated with the prevalence of computers i.e. copyright violations, crimes in which computer is the instrument of the crime or crime in which computer are incidental to another crime such as using it to store illegal records and crimes in which the computer is the target such as crimes that involve stealing information from a computer or denial of service crimes.

Digital Evidence Collection

The collection of digital evidence may have several prominent roles in collection. These roles may include:

  • Physical Technology Collection: Investigators will collect the physical media. Physical media is any technology that stores data or information. E.g. hard disks, PDAs, flash and other electronic devices.
  • Physical Media Analysis: Investigators will analyze the physical evidence for finger prints or other evidence found on the surfaces of the physical technology. This role requires a deep understanding of the technology and may be able to aid the roles of digital evidence collection and digital evidence analysis even when the physical device is severely damaged.
  • Digital Evidence Collection: Investigators will collect the digital data from the physical device. Here, the evidence is the full set of files, folders, and bits stored on the physical media.
  • Digital Evidence Analysis: Investigators will analyze the data collected. Analysis of digital evidence may show hidden information.

Digital Evidence

Digital evidence is both the full set of bits, bytes, and blocks retrieved from the technology. It is also any subset of that full set such as e-mail, log files, text documents, spreadsheets, and other files.

Digital evidence has several unique challenges and questions that must be addressed. The highest challenge is found in modern computers which are implanted as multi-user systems with potentially hundreds of users. Since evidence must conclusively show facts in an investigation, it becomes critical to clear up ambiguities of who owns the data, how the data came to be on the system, and who or what originated the data.

Another concern is the legal issues surrounding the collection of evidence from privately owned devices such as cell phones in private investigations as well the expectation of privacy for employees using company provided resources. While no clear answers have emerged, many businesses specify the proper use of their assets and need employees to waive any such rights to privacy on company assets as part of their employment contract.

Furthermore, this issue has recently become more complicated with the onset of free publicly available encryption technologies. This specific question is whether or not a user retains an expectation of privacy by using encryption on company assets. Clearly, the company has the right to the encrypted version of the data; but does the company have the right to mandate the employee offer an unencrypted version? Subsequently, can a person be ordered by a court of law to give a password to law enforcement to decrypt the digital evidence?

One may be tempted to argue that no digital bit has ever been seen, so plain sight is not possible and not an issue. This issue of privacy raises the question of “plain sight” while collecting evidence from digital sources. Others may argue that a permit to collect any digital evidence stored on a disk or computer device is enough to collect any and all evidence from a computer for any crime.

The plain sight doctrine is best interpreted conservatively so that any seizure of evidence of one crime revealed during the search for evidence for another crime should be then justified by a permit.

Finding the Right Software and Accounting Programs For a Home Business

Owning a business can be a rewarding and exciting prospect. As you get deeper into the process however, it can start to be to keep up with everything. The good news is that there is software at your disposable that makes the management and accounting aspects a bit easier to handle. With a quality accounting program you will be able to pay your bills, print out invoices, manage inventory, and pay employees all in one place, which is much more convenient than using several programs to achieve these same exact results.

A simple web search will reveal a smorgasbord of accounting programs to choose from. A good software program will let you manage invoices, account receivables and payables, inventory, and manage payrolls. Do your own research and choose the product best tailored to your individual needs.

Easily among the best accounting programs is Peachtree Complete Accounting from Sage. There are several suites to choose from, including Peachtree Pro, Peachtree First Accounting, Peachtree Quantum, and Peachtree Premium. The most complete program is Peachtree Complete Accounting.

The only problem I could find with this program is the setup and configuration. It’s an extremely in-depth program and the beginner may find it a bit overwhelming. As far as support goes, however, Peachtree stands head and shoulders above the competition. Once you figure out the vast array of tools at your disposable, you’ll quickly realize that Peachtree can handle any task you may require; it’s a fantastic one stop program. It will even handle any reformatting or printing tasks, completely doing away with a jumble of unnecessary programs.

I need to keep going back to the many features this program provides. It does the work of two or three employees, allowing you to consolidate your payroll expenses. If your business has multiple locations or stores, it will render individual monthly reports and amass them into one comprehensible display.

If you aren’t familiar with accounting programs, you may find it beneficial to have a trained Peachtree technician assist you with the initial setup of the program and guide you through the basic tools and features. Don’t let this deter you from trying out a Peachtree product. With time you’ll feel more comfortable with it and fully realize it’s impressive capabilities. You will find that most of the better accounting programs will take time to fully understand, so don’t sweat it. In the end, you will have more time and energy to improve other areas of your business, and leave the accounting to Peachtree Complete Accounting.

Printable Tree Diagram Software Tools

Before we go into printable tree diagram, let us first have a brief look at what a tree diagram is. Tree diagrams are basically graphics, which represent a structure like a tree, with the components in the diagram having logical relation between them. The tree trunk of the diagram is the main topic of the application, and the facts, factors, influences, traits, people, or outcomes of the topic are represented by the branches. In sorting items or needing to classify them, you would use the benefits of tree diagrams. The typical tree diagram is a like a family tree diagram. The others are, for example, cladistic trees used in biological classification, and dichotomous keys, used to determine what group a specimen belongs to in biology.

These tree diagrams use terminologies which are a mixture of names from the botanical and genealogical terms. Printable tree diagrams are those graphic documents, which have been derived from analysis of problem situations in business operations. Such diagrams can also be produced when you sort items or classify them. Tree diagram appears to be just like a tree, with branches branching out in every direction, looking very much like the family trees that we know of.

Statistical tree diagrams are also printable tree diagrams, and are shaped in the form of a tree, where the dataset is derived from a Cluster, in which the Hierarchical clustering is produced by the Clusters in shape of a tree. When you use tree diagram, the diagram tree has its roots at the top, with the clusters as branches, the heights of which are determined by the numerical value in the output dataset.

A probability tree diagram is used mostly used in mathematical environment, the documents of which can also be printed out as in printable tree diagrams. This tree diagram is used for determining definite results on probabilities on specific probability nested matters. Tree diagram also has a role in physics. A classical tree diagram would depict results obtained from physics problems in which the effects of quantum mechanics are ignored. To create a tree diagram one would not need to perform any integrals to calculate the diagram parameters. Tree diagram has also been used linguistic applications, where it has been used to visually represent the structure of a sentence, a syllable, or phonological feature geometry. Tree diagrams are also used in situations, where you need to judge the validity of critical data. The diagram is also utilised to examine the relevance of the various expression profiles found in Clusters. You can find more information on tree diagram software at

Printable tree diagram is a tool, with which it is possible to create great looking diagrams of the types, tree diagrams, fishbone diagrams, charts, maps, illustrations and more. You will find practically all your applications meeting the features presented in tree diagrams. It is suggested that when you buy a package of the software, you should first have a look at the features that you want. Tree diagrams are expensive and you would not want to buy a package with features that you do not need.